All rights reserved. No part of my web site publication may be used, reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or stored in any retrieval system of any nature, without prior permission.

Author: Dr.Charles Gore

Copyright © 1998-2009


Cahiers d'Art, 1932, Exposition 'Bronzes et Ivoires de Benin ' au Musee d'Ethnographie, 7, 3-5, numero special.

Cambron, L., 1924, La Circoncision dan la Region des Bini at des Environs, Congo, Revue Generale de la Colonie Belge, 5, 2.

Carre, L., 1935, the Art of the Kingdom of Benin,: Bronzes and Ivories from the Old Kingdom of Benin - Exhibition from November 25th to December 14th at the galleries of Michael Knoedler, New York.

Cardi, C.N., Comte de, 1899,Native systems of Government in Benin  and Religion/Origin of the Benin City People, (ed.) Kingsley, M., West African Studies, Macmillan: London. 

Carlsen, F., 1897, Benin in Guinea und Seine Ratselhaften Bronzen, Globus, 72, 20.

Campbell, K. F., 1981, Le Leopard, le Serpent et le Crocodile, Arts d' Afrique Noire, 38. 

Carre, L., 1935, The Art of the Kingdom of Benin: Bronzes and Ivories from the Old Kingdom of Benin (Catalogue of an exhibition from 25 November to 14 December 1935 at the galleries of M., Knoedler and co.), New York, Paris and London.

Carre, L., 1936, Benin --- the City of Bronzes, Parnassus, 8, 1.

Carrol, K., 1967, Yoruba Religious Carving, (chapter 15) Modern Artists, London Geoffrey Chapman.

Caturla, E. del val, 1946, Busto Bronce de Benin, Cuadernos de Historia Primitiva, 1, 2.

Chambers, L., Crocodiles, (eds.) Ben-Amos, Girshick P., and Rubin, A., The Art of Power, the Power of Art, Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, UCLA.

Chaves, L., 1946, Bronzes de Benin - a escultura Afro Portuguesa de Benin, Sociedad de Geografia de Lisboa, Congresso Comemorativo do Descobrimento Centario da Guine, 1.

Chikwendu, V.E., and Umeji, A.C., 1979, Local Sources of Raw Materials for the Nigerian Bronzes/Brass Industry with Emphasis on Igbo-Ukwu, West African Journal of Archaeology, 9.

 Chikwendu, Craddock, Farquar, Shaw and Umeji, 1989, Nigerian Sources of Copper, Lead and Zinc for the Igbo-Ukwu Bronzes, Archaeometry, 31, 1.

Chiwuzie, J., and Okolocha, C., 2001, Traditional Belief Systems and Maternal Mortality in a Semi-Urban Community in Southern Nigeria (Ekpoma), African Journal of Reproductive Health / La Revue Africaine de la Santé Reproductive,  5, 1 April.

Clarke-Butler-Cole, 1943, Forest Farming (Taungya Plantations) in Benin, Farm and Forest 4, 3.

Clapperton, H., 1829, Journal of the Second Expedition into the Interior, London.

Clifford, M., 1936, A Nigerian Chiefdom, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 66.

Cole-Agulu, C., 2007, Benin Sculpture in Modern (Nigerian) Art, (ed.) Plankensteiner, B., (ed.), Benin Kings and Rituals: Court Arts from Nigeria,  Museum fur Volkerkunde Wien-Kunsthistorisches Museum, UitGeverij Snoeck Editions/Publishers: Vienna, Austria.

Colonial Office, 1899, Correspondence Relating to Benin Territories Expedition, HMSO: London.

Colonial Office Information Department, 1956, The Kingdom of Benin, The Colonial Review, IX, 6.

Connah, G., 1963, Archaeological Research in Benin City 1961-64, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 2, 4.

Connah, G., 1964, Polished Stone Axes in Benin, Apapa: Nigerian National Press Ltd..

Connah, G., 1966, Summary of Research in Benin City and in Bornu, West African Archaeological Newsletter, V.

Connah, G., 1967, New Light on the Benin City Walls, Journal of Historical Society of Nigeria, 3, 4.

Connah, G., 1968, Radiocarbon Dates for Benin City and Further dates for Daima N.E. Nigeria, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 4, 2.

Connah, G., 1969 Benin History, in Shaw, T. (ed.) Nigerian Archaeology and Pre-History, University of Ibadan Press:15-25.

Connah, G., 1972, Archaeology in Benin, Journal of African History, 13, 1.

Connah, G., 1975a, How Archaeology Can Supplement History: The Example of Benin, (ed.) Shaw, T., Discovering Nigeria's Past, Oxford University Press.

Connah, G., 1975b, The Archaeology of Benin: Excavations and Other Researches in and around Benin, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Connah, G., 1987 [reprinted 2001], African Civilization: Precolonial Cities and States in Tropical Africa, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Connah, G., 2000, African City Walls: A Negative Source?, Anderson, D., and Rathbone, R., (eds.) Africa's Urban Past, Heinman and Currey: London.

Connoisseur (American Edition), 1951, Benin Ivory, 523 October.

Consentino, D., 1991, Afrokitsch, in Africa Explores: Twentieth Century African Art, Prestel, New York:240-255.

Coombes, A., 1994, Reinventing Africa: Museums, Material Culture and Popular Imagination in Late Victorian and Edwardian England, New Haven, Yale University Press.

Coote, J. and Edwards, E., 1997,  Images of Benin Art at the Pitt Rivers Museum, African Arts,  30, 4. 

Cordwell, J., 1952, Some Aesthetic Aspects of Yoruba and Benin Cultures, Ph.d. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University.

Cordwell, J., 1959, African Art, (eds.) Bascom, W. and Herskovitz, M.J., Continuity and Change in African Cultures, Chicago University Press.

Correia, M.P., 1952, Por Terras de Benin.... Dahome - o Reino da Serpenta, Mensario Admin..

Courbeau, J., 1950-2, L'Empire du Benin, Echo des Missions Africaines de Lyon, 49 annee, 6 septembre-octobre.

Craddock, P.T., 1985, Medieval Copper Alloy Production and West African Bronze Analyses - Part1. Archaeometry 27, 1.

Craddock, P.T. and Picton, J., 1986, Medieval Copper Alloy Production and West African Bronze Analyses - Part 11, Archaeometry 28, 1.

Craft Horizons, 1959, New Acquisitions of Benin Ivory Carving by the Brooklyn Museum, Craft Horizons, 19 march.

Crahmer, W., 1908, Uber den Ursprung der Beninkunst, Globus, 94, 19.

Crahmer, W., 1909, Uberden indoportugiesischen Ursprung der Beninkunst, Globus, 95, 22-23.

Crahmer, W., 1910, Zur Frage nach der Entstehung der Beninkunst, Globus, 97, 1.

Crone, G.R., (ed.), 1937, The voyages of Cadamosto and Other Documents on Western Africa in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century, London.

Crow, H., 1830, Memoirs of the Late Captain Hugh Crow of Liverpool...With Descriptive Sketches of the Western Coast of Africa, London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green.

Crowder, M., 1961, The Chase Manhattan Sculpture, Nigerian Magazine, 70 September.

Crowder, M. (ed.) 1971 West African Resistance: Military Responses to Colonial Occupation, London.

Curnow, K., 1983, The Afro-Portuguese Ivories: Classification and Stylistic Analysis of a Hybrid Art Form, Ph.d Dissertation, Indiana University.

Curnow, K., 1990, Alien or Accepted: African Perspectives on the Western "Other" in 15th and 16th Century Art, Society for Visual Anthropology review 6, 1.

Curnow, K., 1997a, Singular Identities: The Benin Bronze Dwarves, (ed.) , Kulte, Kunstler, Konige in Afrika - Tradition and Moderne in Sudnigeria, Linz.

Curnow, K., 1997b, Prestige and a Gnetleman: Benin's Ideal Man, Art Journal, 56 Summer.

Curnow, K., 1997c, The Art of Fasting: Benin's Ague Ceremony, African Arts 30, 4.

Curnow, K., 2007, Cultural Flow and Cultural Breakwaters: Art Connecting the Benin Kingdom with the Coast, (ed.) Plankensteiner, B., Benin Kings and Rituals: Court Arts from Nigeria,  Museum fur Volkerkunde Wien-Kunsthistorisches Museum, UitGeverij Snoeck Editions/Publishers: Vienna, Austria. 

Top of Page


Copyright ©
all images and texts copyright Dr.C.Gore